Documents, Religion and Conflict

Open Letter: War in Ukraine and the Russian Church

Published on: February 20, 2024
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To:
His Holiness Bartholomew, Archbishop of Constantinople, the New Rome, and Oecumenical Patriarch
The Holy Father Francis, Pope of the Catholic Church
His Holiness Garegin, Primate and Catholicos of All Armenians
His Grace Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of All England and Head of the Anglican Communion
Rev Dr. Panti Filibus Musa, Archbishop of the Lutheran Church in Nigeria, Chairman of the Lutheran World Federation
Mrs. Najla Kassab Abousawan, President of the World Communion of Reformed Churches (WCRC)
Rev Dr Jerry Pillay, General Secretary of the World Council of Churches

Main Cathedral of the Russian Armed Forces. Image Credit: Odintsovo-Info

We address your Excellencies, leaders of the major Christian Churches and confessions, to plead with you. We ask that you publicly address four acute problems that large-scale military conflicts in the modern world pose to all Christians:

  • Using religion to justify violence
  • Injustice
  • Religious nationalism
  • Outright lies emanating from church pulpits

These pressing issues are amplified within the context of the Russian war of aggression in Ukraine. From the very beginning, this conflict took on a distinctive character, in which Russia, a nation primarily identifying itself as Orthodox Christian, invaded Ukraine, another predominantly Christian nation, without any immediate provocation from the side of the latter. Ironically, citizens of both countries were, until recently, affiliated with one and the same Orthodox Church.

We refrain from challenging the propaganda clichés that posit Russia’s invasion of Ukraine as proxy war with the West. Such assertions conveniently align with the perspectives of armchair analysts, but greatly oversimplify the situation. The oversimplification becomes apparent when one examines the frontlines from a human perspective, in which Ukrainian and Russian soldiers are the ones sacrificing their lives, rather than from a geopolitical one—especially a Western geopolitical one.

Russia’s aggression set Orthodox Christians against neighboring Orthodox Christians, divided families, and disrupted the peaceful lives of tens of millions of people in both countries. Many have lost families and friends; have become exiled or internally displaced as refugees; or have become wounded or traumatized, not only physically and psychologically, but also spiritually. 

Christians across the world have not stood idly by. Instead, they have joined with hundreds of millions of non-Christian people who also value the sacredness of life and the dignity of the human person. Together, these ordinary people have freely chosen to stand in solidarity with the victims of this invasion. Communities and organizations worldwide, including those rooted in Christian traditions, continue to offer practical care and assistance in response to these challenges. 

Today, it is crucial for all Christians to undertake another pressing task: to diligently explore compelling responses to questions regarding human dignity and our divine responsibility to safeguard life and steward creation. This exploration must include considerations of the permissibility and justification of violence, the right to immediate self-defense, and the engagement in combat against evil—particularly when viewed through the lens of the Gospel. The presence of war at our doorstep indicates that we are still in search of answers.

The Russian Orthodox Church and Russia’s Aggression against Ukraine

Our shared concern and plea to you are chiefly tied to the stance articulated by the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC). Patriarch Kirill has declared full support for Russian aggression. He has ensured that the institutional church assumes patronage of the Russian army occupying part of Ukraine. In so doing, the ROC demonstrated an unambiguous lack of interest in peacemaking and compassion. And yet, even given its entanglement with nationalist militarism, the ROC still claims to be the major Church of the Eastern Christian tradition, and the ROC claims to speak as the principal guardian of “traditional values.” 

During much of the last century, the Orthodox Church in Russia endured harsh persecutions under atheistic Soviet regimes. After the collapse of the USSR, the ROC seemed to have entered a renaissance. Old churches and cathedrals were restored, and new ones were built.  The Bible and theological texts were once more in print. Monasteries and convents were re-opened, along with Orthodox schools and theological seminaries. These events were welcomed and encouraged by the greater Christian world.

Simultaneously, despite specific disquieting indicators (often overlooked by the broader Christian community), the Russian Orthodox Church reasserted its alignment with the State, positioning itself as closely as the authorities permitted. Those in power treated the Church as an integral component of the neo-imperial regime. The ROC actively engaged in the Kremlin’s apparatus of propaganda and violence. The most striking manifestation of the ROC’s collaboration is evident in its religious and even pseudo-theological justification for the unbridled aggression of Russia’s regime against a rightfully sovereign Ukraine, coupled with the continued blessing of the invasion and all its participants.

The sins of justification and benediction are not solitary deeds of individual bishops or idiosyncratic priests but institutional transgressions. These sins manifest the overarching, unified ideological stance of the entire Russian Orthodox Church, overseen and upheld by the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. Public anti-war opinions within the Church are infrequent, with clergy who voice opposition to the war often subjected to sham trials in ecclesiastical or secular tribunals. They face repercussions ranging from suspension to defrocking. In some cases, they are compelled to leave the country.

Russia’s war against Ukraine has become the bloodiest European war since the Nazis started World War II by invading Poland. In the aftermath of that world war, such horror was not ever supposed to happen again. Not only is the horror happening again, but this time, the horror has been initiated by one of the countries that had itself suffered heavily from Nazi aggression, suffered great losses, came out victorious, and later gave firm international commitments to promote peace in every possible way.

Over the past two years, Christian charitable organizations in Europe and America have been fervently involved in supporting Ukraine. Their efforts extend beyond providing tangible assistance. They also stand as vocal critics, morally condemning Russia’s aggression. This steadfast support serves as a profound testament to the enduring historical legacy of Christian mercy and solidarity.

It is of utmost importance to emphasize that President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation, alongside Russia’s politicians and soldiers, has not only violated their international obligations. More profoundly, he has committed a blasphemy against God. This pertains to individuals who identify themselves as Christians and who often criticize the West for deviating from Christian values. Despite engaging in the construction of new churches and monasteries, lighting candles, fervent prayer, participation in sacraments, and partaking of Holy Communion, these individuals paradoxically compound their sins by issuing orders for murders, personally engaging in war crimes, and publicly justifying actions that run contrary to humanity and the Creator.

The Gospel and the Moral Responsibility of Christians

For us Christians who received the gift of the Holy Spirit, our moral responsibility to life and the flourishing of God’s creation is part of baptismal vows and is closely bound to the Gospel teaching and to our confessing faith in the Lord Jesus as God-Man and the Savior of the world.  We are compelled to strive to be holy as our Father in Heaven is holy (Mt: 5:43-48).

Regrettably, however, unscrupulousness and immorality have become commonplace among numerous ostensibly Christian politicians and senior government officials, with Russia being no exception. Realpolitik often takes precedence over ethical and moral considerations. The situation takes on an added dimension of moral reprehensibility when the Patriarch of a Church, along with bishops and many parish priests, not only justifies an aggressive war but actively encourages Christians to engage in conflict with neighboring nations, even those considered brethren. Such transgressions represent a double sin, a blatant departure from the imitatio Christi, a blasphemous desecration carried out with conscious intent, openly and devoid of any hint of contrition. It has reached a point where silence can no longer be maintained in the face of such egregious acts.

“Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they will be filled” (Mt. 5:6). For us, these words are a call not only to seek truth and righteousness but also to reject all lies, omissions, and manipulations of facts. The perpetrators have forgotten the all-seeing eye of the Creator (Ps. 139:7-12). In the new era of smartphones and instant connectivity, this lying has become a constitutive part of launching any “hybrid war,” a war that weaves together state and non-state actors, and strategies of conventional and irregular warfare, including the dissemination of fake news. In a hybrid war, anyone who participates in the lie directly participates in such a war.

It is not enough to condemn the war in Ukraine. It is not enough to call for a ceasefire and, more generally, to call for peace. There is now a need to shine light on the true cause of the war; there is a need to call out who unleashed it to evaluate the criminal actions for what they are.

Not a single bishop in the Russian Federation has preached peace during the past two years of this war, but many of them pray and preach about the victory of Russia over Ukraine. What a shame for the most prominent Orthodox Church in the modern world. And the rest of the institutional Christian world is remaining silent. Shall we say that we are at the point when silence becomes acceptance?

We strongly believe that Christian leaders are called to recognize their ministry first and foremost as a prophetic ministry, and this assumes that they are capable of confronting evil, demonstrating wisdom, justice, and courage.

Personal Responsibility of the Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church

“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called the sons of God” (Mt 5:9). Patriarch Kirill has not once conveyed sympathy or expressed condolences for the Ukrainians who have endured loss, injury, or displacement. His stance remains unbowed by the heartbreaking reality of children’s deaths and suffering. The patriarch has shown no lament for those subjected to torture and torment by Russian soldiers. On numerous occasions, he and his clergy have actively encouraged young men from Russia to participate in this devastating conflict. Rather than acknowledging the human toll, he consistently reiterates his proclamation that Russia stands on the side of light, engaging in a delusional great war against the forces of darkness.

This lack speaks of the deep spiritual and moral fall of the Russian Orthodox Church and its spiritual leaders. Patriarch Kirill (Gundyaev) himself has for many years neglected his pastoral duty with respect to Ukrainians, while belittling their dignity and supporting a deeper division within Ukrainian Orthodoxy. He has closed his eyes to political repression and multiple violations of civic freedoms and human rights in Russia and has justified these violations by his silence and occasions of explicit support. He has supported the Russian regime’s aggressive, anti-Christian tendencies promoted under the guise of such manipulative formulations as “Russian world” or “traditional values.” He has supported the State’s lies about the “internecine war” in Ukraine by composing prayers and demanding that they be included in liturgical practice. Finally, he has supported and justified aggression against Ukraine through his pastoral praxis and theological discourse.

This use of liturgy, theological discourse, and pastoral influence has given multiple examples of how Patriarch Kirill, together with his bishops and many priests, have violated the sixth commandment to the Decalogue: “Thou shall not kill.” They have repeatedly twisted the sacrament of Christian benediction into a sanctioning of murder of the citizens of a neighboring Christian country. Occasions of such violations have become too numerous, and too well-documented on YouTube, X, and elsewhere, to be considered an accident.

The support of this “hybrid war” of unprovoked aggression, the justification of its violence, and the persecution of any priest and believer who speaks the truth against the war—all these committed acts demonstrate a conscious and deliberately-argued position. All these testify to the extent that the Russian Orthodox Church has deviated from the Gospel and preaches something alternative to the Word of God. All Christians must critically ask whether the teaching preached publicly and unabashedly by the representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church is indeed the true message of the Christ event.

Wishing and praying for peace while failing to identify the aggressor, without distinguishing between perpetrators and victims, and without acknowledging the right of a country that faces war of aggression to defend itself, does not promote true and just peace.

Prophetic Ministry and Standing in Truth

This contemporary moment of suffering and dread demands that the words of pastors, Church leaders, and prophets be firmly rooted in the Holy Scriptures and the loving example of Jesus the Christ and be proclaimed clearly and strongly throughout the world.

During times of conflict, the pursuit of diplomatic and political objectives can obfuscate the prophetic voice bestowed upon the Church through its divine mission. Often the Church places value on peacemaking and involves itself in negotiations with the warring parties to achieve a quick détente or ceasefire. However, it must be honestly recognized, by Church officials and the faithful alike, that these efforts have so far failed to bring about any lasting results. Church diplomats too often neglect at least the Gospel ethic in their pursuit of political goals and careerist aspirations.

Recognizing that everything possible must be done to end the war and establish a just peace, we are awaiting from you the word that is “living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword” (Hebrews 4:12).

It is disheartening that, even two years into the conflict, there is no official Church document condemning the war comprehensively. More disappointingly, there is a lack of consistent and unequivocal denunciation of Russia’s aggression while characterizing the total support for this war from high-ranking church officials in the Russian Orthodox Church as a scandal.

We express our support for those few Christian leaders who have personally made public statements on this matter. Their steadfast stance demonstrates a commitment to truth and justice, and we commend their efforts in upholding the values of our faith. It is our sincere hope that such expressions of moral clarity will serve as inspiration for further collective action within the broader Christian community.

We beseech you to actively and immediately engage with the appropriate international institutions to facilitate the establishment of an international task force dedicated to holding accountable, through sincere and impartial analysis, those bishops, priests, and laity within the Russian Orthodox Church whose statements, testimonials, sermons, communications, and fabrications have sanctioned and bestowed divine approval upon violence, war, and aggression against the people of Ukraine.

Numerous publications have meticulously analyzed these distressing facts, underscoring the urgency for a formalized initiative that compels the attention of Churches and cannot be disregarded. Your active engagement in establishing such an entity will be a significant step toward addressing these critical issues at an institutional level.

A Church that only outwardly remains “Christian” but has lost its evangelical spirit cannot be a sister to those Churches and communities that follow the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ.

The endeavors elucidated above transcend a mere conflict with the Russian Orthodox Church. Rather, they embody a dedicated striving on its behalf—for the Church, for the community of believers guided by the Holy Spirit and the Gospel, liberated from deceptive political theology and detrimental religious ideology. Progressing resolutely toward genuine peace requires the fearless proclamation of truth, regardless of the inherent challenges it may pose.

You are summoned to denounce injustices, advocate for repentance and atonement, and actively seek transformative change within the temporal realm. We ask you, our pastors, to courageously proclaim the inconvenient yet profound truth.

Sergei Chapnin, Orthodox Christian Studies Center of Fordham University, USA
Aristotle Papanikolaou, Orthodox Christian Studies Center of Fordham University, USA
George Demacopoulos, Orthodox Christian Studies Center of Fordham University, USA
Nathaniel Wood, Orthodox Christian Studies Center of Fordham University, USA

 

  1. Marcello Neri, Catholic University of Milan, Italy
  2. Korinna Zamfir, Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology, Babes-Bolyai University
  3. Paul Ladouceur, University of Toronto, Canada
  4. Regina Elsner, Münster Universität, Germany
  5. Jose Casanova, Georgetown University
  6. Daniel F. Stramara, Jr., Rockhurst University, USA
  7. Steven Harmon, Professor of Historical Theology, Gardner-Webb University School of Divinity, Cooperative Baptist Fellowship (USA)
  8. Andrii Smyrnov, National University of Ostroh Academy, Ukraine
  9. Josef Gulka, University of Pennsylvania, USA
  10. Charles Lock, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
  11. Dr. Nicolae Roddy, PhD, Creighton University
  12. Rev. Brandon Gallaher, University of Exeter, UK
  13. Dr. Lori Peterson Branch, The University of Iowa
  14. Dr W.Paula Nicholson, Orthodox Christian, former co-founder and warden of a Russian Orthodox Parish with the UK
  15. The Rev. H. Ashley Hall, Creighton University
  16. Radu Bordeianu, Duquesne University
  17. Dr. Serhii Shumylo, Director of the International Institute of the Athonite Legacy, Visiting Research Fellow in the University of Exeter
  18. Costis Drygianakis, Volos Academy for Theological Studies, Greece
  19. Alla Skyrda, Donetsk National Technical University, Ukraine
  20. Bradford Hinze, Roman Catholic, Fordham University
  21. Dr. Simon Podmore, Liverpool Hope University
  22. Prof. Steven Shakespeare, Liverpool Hope University
  23. Dr Yazid Said, Liverpool Hope University
  24. Roman Vershynin, University of California, Irvine
  25. Vera Tolz, University of Manchester, UK
  26. Alexei Bodrov, Nijmegen University
  27. Kostadin Nushev, Faculty of Theology, Sofia university, Bulgaria
  28. Hieronim Grala, Professor, Warsaw University, Poland
  29. Dr. Giorgi Khuroshvili, Professor, New Georgian University, Georgia
  30. William Hood, Jay Professor Emeritus, Oberlin College (OH)
  31. Dr. Alexander Rusakov, Asst. Professor, Oakland University, USA
  32. Barry Harvey, Baylor University, USA
  33. Matthew Pauly, Michigan State University
  34. Ioannis Kaminis, Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski", Bulgaria
  35. Reimund Bieringer, Catholic University of Louvain (Leuven), Belgium
  36. Oleksandr Sagan, Institute of Philosophy NAS of Ukraine
  37. Heorhii Papakin, M.S.Hrushevsky Institute of Ukrainian Archeografy, NAS of Ukraine
  38. Grégoire Sommer, Laboratoire d'études sur les rhétoriques, Suisse
  39. Tornike Metreveli, Lund University
  40. Taras Khomych, Liverpool Hope University, Ukrainian Catholic Church, Association of Ukrainians in Great Britain (Liverpool Branch)
  41. Curtis Freeman, Research Professor of Theology and Ruth D. Duncan Director of the Baptist House of Studies at Duke University Divinity School
  42. Ihor Teslenko, National University of Kyiv Mohyla Academy
  43. Chrysostom Koutloumousianos, Cambridge Institute for Orthodox Christian Studies, Abbot of Faneromeni Monastery, Naxos.
  44. Alla Boiko, Professor, Kyiv
  45. Oksana Horkusha, Institute of Philosophy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, senior researcher
  46. Dr. Natalia Kochan , National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv, Ukraine
  47. Alla Boiko, Professor Taras Shevchenko national university of Kyev n
  48. Liudmyla Fylypovych, Ukrainian Association of Researchers of Religion, president
  49. Warren Woodfin, Queens College, CUNY / CUNY Graduate Center
  50. Myroslav Marynovych, Ukrainian Catholic University
  51. Marcus Zervos, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne state University School of Medicine
  52. Andrew Summerson, Sheptytsky Institute of Eastern Christian Studies at the University of St. Michael's College, Toronto
  53. Anatolii Babynskyi, Ukrainian Catholic University, University of Notre Dame
  54. Svetlana Panich, University of Toronto, Canada
  55. Lisa Holsberg, Fordham University and Sacred Heart University, USA
  56. Philip Dorroll, Wofford College
  57. Ivan Christov, Sofia university, BG
  58. Rachel Contos, Fordham University
  59. Elizabeth Johnson, Fordham University
  60. Metropolitan Elia (Wallgrén), Orthodox diocese of Oulu , Ortodox church of Finland
  61. Prof. Archpriest John A. McGuckin, Theology Faculty, Oxford University
  62. Archimandrite Nicanor, Abbot, Bulgarian Orthodox Church
  63. Archimandrite Romanos Anastasiadis, Church of Crete, Ecumenical Patriarchate
  64. Very Rev. Demetre Tetruashvili, Archimandrite
  65. Very Rev. John A. Jillions, Orthodox Church in America
  66. Very Rev. Robert M. Arida, Retired Dean, Holy Trinity Cathedral, Boston
  67. Very Rev. Harry Pappas, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
  68. Very Rev. James S. Dutko, ACROD
  69. Very Rev. Steven C. Kostoff, Orthodox Church in America
  70. Very Rev. Christopher Calin, Orthodox Church in America
  71. Very Rev. Andrey Kordochkin , University of Göttingen, Germany
  72. Very Rev. Marc Dunaway, Antiochian Orthodox
  73. Very Rev. Georgy Roi, Lithuanian Exarchate of Ecumenical Patriarchate
  74. Very Rev. Igor Tarasov, Ecumenical Patruarchate, USA
  75. Very Rev. Alexis Struve, Vicariat Sainte-Marie de Paris, patriarcat Œcuménique
  76. Very Rev. Peter Sonntag, Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Germany
  77. Very Rev. Vladimiras Seliavko , Orthodox Ecumenical exarchate in Lithuania
  78. Very Rev. Oleksandr Trofymliuk, Rector of Kyiv Orthodox Theological Academy
  79. Very Rev. George Kovalenko, Orthodox Church of Ukraine
  80. Very Rev. Vitalijus Mockus Mockus, Exarchate of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Lithuania
  81. Very Rev. Віталій Кузьмич, Православна Церква України
  82. Very Rev. John (Ivan) Lyszyk, Ukrainian Orthodox Church of USA
  83. Very Rev. Jean Jean Drancourt, Vicariat/Metropole de France
  84. Very Rev. Wilfred Sophrony Royer, Orthodox Church in America
  85. Very Rev. Peter Baktis, Orthodox Church in America
  86. Rev. Dr Athanasius McVay, Ukrainian Catholic Church
  87. Rev Prof Dr Harold Hunter, IPHC Ecumenical Officer
  88. Rev. Trayan Goranov, Bulgarian priest in the UK
  89. Rev. Volodymyr Melnychuk, Ecumenical Patriarchate, Italy
  90. Rev. Mychajlo Dymyd, Ukrainian Catholic University
  91. Rev. Stephen Karcher, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
  92. Rev. Mihail Trifonov, Orthodox Priest, Bulgaria
  93. f.Andreas (Roger) Robberstad, Munk
  94. Rev. Wasyl Makarenko, Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada - Patriarchate of Constantinople
  95. Rev. Bohdan Hladio, Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada
  96. Rev. Oleksandr Sorokin, Ukrainian Orthodox Church
  97. Rev. Deacon Lawrence Hendricks, Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Parma
  98. Rev. Dr. Emanuel S. Chris, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
  99. Rev. Dr. Stephen V. Sprinkle, Theologian-in-Residence, Episcopal Church of St. Thomas the Apostle, Dallas, Texas
  100. Rev. Vladimir Rinkevic, Russian Orthodox Church
  101. Rev. Rauno Pietarinen, Orthodox Church of Finland
  102. Rev. Kristjan Otsmann, Orthodox Church of Estonia
  103. Rev. Dr. David Miller, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
  104. Rev. Maksim Filippov, Russian Orthodox Church Abroad
  105. Rev. Dr. Walter Slaven, Retired Eastern Orthodox Deacon
  106. Rev. Bohdan Statkevych, Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada
  107. Rev. Gintaras Sungaila, Exarchate of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Lithuania
  108. Rev. Jaakko Vainio, Orthodox Church of Finland
  109. Rev. Dr. Vasily Maksymyshynenets , Ukrainian Orthodox Church
  110. Rev. Dr. Andriy Dudchenko , Orthodox Church of Ukraine, Kyiv Orthodox Theological Academy
  111. Rev. Basil Bush, Moscow Patriarchate
  112. Rev. Konstantin Tkachenko, Orthodox Church
  113. Hiéromoine Michel Evelson , Vicariat Orthodoxe St Marie et St Alexis France
  114. Monk-deacon Jaakob, Valamo Monastery of Transfiguration of Christ, the Orthodox Church of Finland
  115. Hieromonk Job Olshanskyi, Lviv Theological seminary
  116. Hieromonk Alexis (Lisenko), Orthodox Church in America
  117. Hermit Priest-Monk Silouan , Romanian Orthodox Church
  118. Rev. Raymond A Bucko, S.J., Jesuit priest
  119. Deacon Nerijus Čapas OFS, Catholic Church
  120. Friar Robert Lentz, OFM, Order of Friars Minor
  121. Rev. Peter Galadza, Ukrainian Greek-Catholic
  122. Rev. Frank Avant, Ukrainian Greek-Catholic
  123. Dcn. Justin Coyle , Ukrainian Greek-Catholic
  124. Rev. J. Michael Wheeler , Associate Rector, St. Peter's Episcopal Church, Kerrville TX
  125. Lawrence A Kreh, Presbyterian (Elder)
  126. Rev. J.M. Perry, United Church of Сanada
  127. Lyle Mook, Chaplain, South County Hospital, ordained in the Evangelical Covenant Church
  128. Curtis Rohland, Retired Pastor Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
  129. Johan Maurer, Recorded minister, Friends (Quakers)
  130. Colin Justin, Orthodox Peace Fellowship, Archdiocese of Canada - Orthodox Church in America
  131. Nicholas Sluchevsky, RBR Inc.
  132. Inga Leonova, "The Wheel", USA
  133. Michael Clark, Editor, The Wheel, Canada
  134. Gillian Crow, Orthodox writer, UK
  135. Nikita et Xenia Krivocheine, Moderators of the site "Parlons d'orthodoxie", France
  136. Giacomo Sanfilippo, Editor, Orthodoxy in Dialogue, Canada
  137. Malou Ibita, Catholic Biblical Association of the Philippines
  138. Clarence Hammond, Episcopal Religious Solitary
  139. Alexandra Irini, Parishioner Greek Orthodox Church Australia
  140. Anastasios Gounaris, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
  141. Andreja Bogdanovski, Author - Divine Diplomacy
  142. Anne H Soukhanov, Retired dictionary executive editor & columnist
  143. Charles Compston, Interested Party
  144. Cristina Cicognani , Catholic, Italy
  145. Dmitry Stepanov, Medical Doctor, Germany
  146. Edith Reyntiens Reyntiens, Orthodox parish of Sts Nicholas and Blane, Dunblane, Scotland
  147. George Kontanis, Parishioner St George Grerk Orthodox Church Dartmouth Mass and former Graduate student Fordham under Late Dr Meyendorff
  148. Jacqueline de Mestral, Anglican Church of Canada
  149. Judith Emery, St. Francis of Assisi Church, New York, NY
  150. Kevin A. Demetroff, Roman Catholic Director of Music Ministries and Liturgy, retiref
  151. Olena Polich, Ukrainian Orthodox Church and Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America
  152. Inna Baranovska, Orthodox Church of Ukraine
  153. Martin Arnold, UGCC, Brisbane, Queensland
  154. Mary Mondello, OCSC Supporter
  155. Michael Craig Rhodes, Independent scholar
  156. Theodore NIkolis, Esq., Greek Orthodox Church
  157. Arthur KATSAROS, Greek Orthodox
  158. Athena Tarsinos, Greek Orthodox Christian
  159. John Ioannoou, Greek Orthodox
  160. Nancy H. Weres, MD, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
  161. Isaac Johnson, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
  162. Frank Zaveral, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
  163. Michael Pickel, Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church, Lewiston, Maine
  164. Dale Simison, Orthodox Christian, Antiochain
  165. Andrew Frishman, Orthodox Christian, Antiochain, USA
  166. Richard Mohr, Orthodox Christian, Antiochain
  167. Ellene Zervos, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America and Orthodox Church in America
  168. Olga Kudrina, Russian Orthodox Church
  169. Alex Krymskiy, Russian Orthodox
  170. Alexey Golub, Эстонская Православная Церковь Московского Патриархата
  171. Shota Kurua, Patriarchate of Georgia
  172. Andrei Tarasiuk, Polish Orthodox Church
  173. Jan Křipač , Orthodox Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia
  174. Antoine Arjakovsky , Patriarcat œcuménique, France
  175. Yustina Panina, Vicariat Orthodoxe Ste Marie et St Alexis, France
  176. Monique DRANCOURT, métropole de France/vicarait Ste Marie et St Alexis
  177. Didier Vilanova, Vicariat Ste Marie et St Alexis, Patriarcat OEcuménique, France
  178. Didier Vilanova , Vicariat orthodoxe Ste Marie-Saint Alexis (Pat. Œcuménique) France
  179. Père Yannick Provost, Métropole de France du Patriarcat œcuménique
  180. Anastasia Provost-Leconte, Métropole de France du Patriarcat œcuménique
  181. Gabriel Behr, Orthodox Ecumenical Vicariate in France
  182. Jesse Wiebe, Orthodox Church in America
  183. Kevin Rains, Orthodox Church in America
  184. Mary James, Orthodox Church in America
  185. David N. Thomas, Orthodox Church in America
  186. Mark Galperin, Orthodox Church in America
  187. Presvytera Deborah Kostoff, Orthodox Church in America
  188. Marianne Livezey, Orthodox Church in America
  189. Ted Bobosh, Orthodox Church in America
  190. Joseph F Foster, Orthodox Church in America
  191. Yuri Kyrpach, Orthodox Church in America
  192. James A Bouse, Orthodox Church in America
  193. Julie Furman Stodolka, Orthodox Church in America
  194. Svetlana Pantenkova , Orthodox Church in America
  195. Carol Fox, Orthodox Church in America
  196. H Jeffrey Robinson, JD MDiv ThM, Orthodox Church in America
  197. Margaret Scott, Orthodox Church in America
  198. Nadine Ondera, Orthodox Church in America
  199. Dr. Mara Livezey, Orthodox Church in America
  200. Svitlana Chaykivska, Orthodox Church in America
  201. Boris Piterl, Orthodox Church in America
  202. Aleksei Samoilov, Orthodox Church in America, citizen of the Russian Federation
  203. Vladimir Grygorenko , Subdeacon, Orthodox Church in America
  204. Rebecca Harris Hunt, Former choir director, Orthodox Church in America
  205. Luben Stoilov, Diocese of San Francisco and the West, OCA
  206. Sarah Bartmann, Carpatho-Russian Orthodox
  207. Rev. Victor Poliarny, Orthodox Church of Ukraine in the USA
  208. Roman Fedyk, Ukraine Orthodox Church
  209. Siarhei Tupikau, Ukraine Orthodox Church
  210. Roman Vyskub, Ukraine Orthodox Church
  211. Alexey Krasnov, Ukraine Orthodox Church
  212. Natalie Sobchak , Ukrainian Orthodox Christian
  213. Galyna Kiriienko, Orthodox Church of Ukraine
  214. Tatjana Djatshenko, Orthodox Christian, Finland
  215. Petteri Lalu, Orthodox Church of Finland
  216. Jana Freundlich , Orthodox Church of Finland
  217. Mauri Liukkonen, Journalist, Orthodox Church of Finland
  218. Sergey Furmanov, ROCOR, Chicago, IL USA
  219. Steven Lacey, former parish councilor ROCOR UK
  220. Stanislav Dobrolyubov, Orthodox Christian, ROCOR
  221. Stanislav Dobrolyubov, Orthodox Christian, ROCOR
  222. Mariya Nekipelov , Orthodox Christian, ROCOR
  223. Ruslan Kassabov, Orthodox Christian, ROCOR
  224. Irina Voinkova, Orthodox Christian, ROCOR
  225. Anna Frost, Orthodox Christian, ROCOR
  226. Richard Ruusmann, Orthodox church of Estonia
  227. Chris Papadinoff, Macedonian Orthodox
  228. Todd Garvin , Orthodox Christian (Antiochian)
  229. Валерий Авдасьов, Orthodox Christian (UOC), Ukraine
  230. Valeriu-Cristian Hadji-Culea, National Theatre Iasi, Romania, Orthodox
  231. Tatiana Nikolova-Houston, Orthodox Christian, artist and scholar, USA-Bulgaria
  232. Иеромонах Иаков (Воронцов), Orthodox Christian, Kazakhstan
  233. Claudia Dobrina, Orthodox Christian, Stockholm
  234. Olga Bukhina, Orthodox Christian, USA
  235. Maria Dorman, Orthodox Christian, New York
  236. Snezhana Dimitrova, Orthodox Christian, Bulgaria
  237. Reneta Trifonova, Orthodox Christian, Bulgaria
  238. Lyuboslava Ivanova , Orthodox Christian, Bulgaria
  239. Nina Atanasova, Orthodox christian, Bulgaria
  240. Lina Cerguta, Orthodox Christian, Greece
  241. Grigorii Stepanov, Mathematician, Orthodox Christian
  242. Antoni Giwojna, Orthodox Christian, Polish Orthodox Parish in Brussels
  243. Teodora Pogonat, Romanian Orthodox
  244. Maria Mayofis, Orthodox Christian , USA
  245. Ilya Lyudogovskiy, Orthodox Christian, Reader
  246. Ilya Kukulin, Orthodox Christian
  247. Basil Lvoff, Orthodox Christian
  248. Andre Piddoubny, Orthodox Christian
  249. Noah Jefferson, Orthodox Christian
  250. Alexander Girard, Orthodox Christian
  251. David Short, Orthodox Christian
  252. Michel Vasquez, Orthodox Christian
  253. Kateryna Fechtel, Orthodox Christian
  254. Оксана Зайко, Orthodox Christian
  255. Evangelos Kostoulas, Orthodox Christian
  256. Diana Carter, Orthodox Christian
  257. Athanasius Bukin, Orthodox Christian
  258. Elena Lyudogovskaya, Orthodox Christian
  259. Leon Nicholson, Orthodox Christian
  260. Johnny Haataja, Orthodox Christian
  261. Kevin Wells, Orthodox Christian
  262. Alexander Manotskov, Orthodox Christian
  263. Vlad Mischevca , Orthodox Christian
  264. Pauline Costianes, Orthodox Christian
  265. Graham Speake, Orthodox Christian
  266. Igor Prososov, Orthodox Christian
  267. Oleksandr Vinnytskyi, Orthodox Christian
  268. Nadia Pchenko, Orthodox Christian
  269. Michael Steele, Orthodox Christian
  270. Ekaterina Belova, Orthodox Christian
  271. Oleksii Miroshnyk, Orthodox Christian
  272. Ty Gale, Orthodox Christian
  273. Denys Clement, Orthodox Christian
  274. Richard Power, Orthodox Christian
  275. Egor Soloviev, Orthodox Christian
  276. Ivo Bratanov, Orthodox Christian
  277. Mia Lastra, Orthodox Christian
  278. Olga Avdieieva, Orthodox Christian
  279. Tatiana Gubenko, Orthodox Christian
  280. Illya Bey, Orthodox Christian
  281. Melania Jackson, Orthodox Christian
  282. James Haines, Orthodox Christian
  283. Mykola Kikkas, Orthodox Christian
  284. Ioana Patuleanu, Orthodox Christian, Mercer County Community College
  285. Orest Kowalsky, Orthodox Christian
  286. Mykhailo Kalchenko, Ukrainian Orthodox Christian
  287. Irina Sukhaya, Ukrainian Orthodox Church
  288. Serhii Shteinikov , Ukrainian Orthodox Church
  289. Nina Garmash, Orthodox Christian
  290. Oleh Iwanusiw, Ukrainian Catholic Church
  291. Katsaros Bilinsky, MD , Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, Louisiana
  292. Gerald Kent, Catholic
  293. Santo Colosi, Cattolico, Italy
  294. Oldřich Šimek, Magister of Catholic Theology
  295. Nicholas Roddis, Ascension Alliance, Independent Catholic
  296. Vadim Amelin, Christian
  297. Nataly Vinogradova, Christian
  298. Laurence Geoffroy , Christian
  299. Mikhail Agafonov, Refugee
  300. Robert Haddad, AOC
  301. Patrick Woolsey, PCUSA
  302. Кирилл Харатьян, Редактор
  303. Simonas Bendžius, journalist
  304. Vladimir Paperny, UCLA
  305. Hanna Nikolaienko, Odess, Ukraine (Warsaw)
  306. Denis Bazanov, Chior Director
  307. Anna Dymovska, Municipal establishment “Balta pedagogical professional college”
  308. Dimitar Petrov, Bulgaria
  309. Marina Buvailo , Dr
  310. Fedor Lyudogovskiy, Former priest of the Russian Orthodox Church
  311. Ioannis Fotiadis , Athens, Greece
  312. Denis Pedyash, Dr
  313. Margarita Gencheva , Student, Bulgaria
  314. Ruslan Khalikov, Head of the "Religion on Fire" project
  315. Николай Платонов, Defrocked Priest of the Russian Orthodox Church
  316. Andrew Fedosov, Holy Trinity Russian Orthodox Church (ROCOR), Toronto
  317. Tatiana Valdez, Lawer
  318. Vladyslav Havrylov , Scientific researcher
  319. Yevgen Luniak, Nizhyn Gogol State University
  320. Dmytro Hordiienko, National Academy of Science of Ukraine
  321. Žana Kraujalienė, Lietuva, Vilnius
  322. Dr. Hermina Nedelescu , Scripps Research & Graduate Theological Union
  323. Lars Ahlbäck, Mr.
  324. Olena Zelenina, Gromada Group - a network of local media in Kharkiv region
  325. Olga Lossky, France
  326. Ioannis Orfanoudakis -Foskolos , OFS
  327. Jennifer Speake, Freelance writer
  328. Iulian Ucraineț, Moldova
  329. Yaroslava Myslyva, Parishioner of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church and the Orthodox Church of Ukraine
  330. James Haney , E. Lutheran Church in America
  331. Jurij Mojsiak, UA Greek Catholic
  332. Stella Torrez, Greek Catholic
  333. Mykola Bunii, Theologian
  334. Oleksandr Hryhoryshyn, Dentist, UOC
  335. Christopher Scott Roby, Theologian
  336. Margot VanEtten VanEtten, Roman Catholic
  337. George Hnatiw, Roman Catholic
  338. James Hess, Roman Catholic
  339. Anita Prati, cattolica
  340. Luis Martins, Católico Romano
  341. Archimandrit Andreas-Abraham Dr. Thiermeyer, Katholische Kirche
  342. Pawel Przeciszewski, Warsaw Roman Catholic Church
  343. Rimantas Misevicius, Lithuania, Catholic
  344. James Deshotels, UGCC
  345. The Rev. Melissa Chappell, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
  346. Douglas Dales, Church of England
  347. Yossi Lopez-Hineynu , The Episcopal Church
  348. Rev. Dr. George A. Mason, Cooperative Baptist Fellowship
  349. Very Rev. Dr David Bruce, The Presbyterian Church in Ireland
  350. Madalasa Mobili, Christian
  351. Vicky Bartholomew, ELCA
  352. Andrew Taylor, Ecumenical Patriarchate
  353. Tim Bullard, Greek Orthodox parishioner, Chicago, IL
  354. Truța Eugen Adrian, Romanian Orthodox Church
  355. Peter Von Berg, Actor, Orthodox Christian
  356. Mark Lerner, St. Gregory's Chapel, Orthodox Church in America
  357. Yury Olshansky, Christ the Savior Orthodox Church, New York, actor , author
  358. Tetiana Derkach, Orthodox Church of Ukraine, religious publicist
  359. Seraphim Alton Honeywell, Orthodox Parish of the Annunciation in Oxford
  360. Oleksandr Kot, Ukrainian Orthodox Church
  361. Serhiy Kovalchuk, St. Nicholas Eparchy, Ukrainian Catholic Church
  362. Kristjan Mänd, Estonian Apostolic-Orthodox Church
  363. Reader John Malov, Ex ROC
  364. Robert Cox, OFWB Church
  365. Tom Terentiew, ODUM Toronto
  366. Tamara Grdzelidze, Tbilisi, Georgia
  367. Brigitte Vilanova, ACAT-France
  368. Dominika Kurek-Chomycz, Liverpool Hope University
  369. Iannis Carras, historian, Germany
  370. Prof. Ivan Christov Christov, Bulgaria
  371. Prof. Dr. Giorgi Khuroshvili Khuroshvili, New Georgian University
  372. Lev Burov, Non-denominational Christian
  373. Ana-Maria Sîrghi, Non-affiliated
  374. Vera Sokolowski , Ukrainian
  375. Paul Amann, Berlin
  376. Natalie Tillman, Ohio
  377. Lily Tischenko, Retired teacher
  378. Yuliya Orlova, follower

 

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